Thyroid Problems Occurring during Pregnancy: Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ located in the neck.

The thyroid gland is about 2 inches long and is located in front of the throat under the apparent ness of the thyroid cartilage called the adam diamond.

Endocrine is part of a complex network of cloth called the system, the hormone system. The endocrine system is responsible for coordinating most of the body’s activities. Thyroid is an internal gland, one of the most important parts of the endocrine system. Function; It is a hormone called T3 and T4 that produces and releases them into the blood.

The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate heart and digestive function, muscle control, brain development, mood and bone care, as well as the body’s metabolic rate.

Deficiency or excess can cause very serious ailments and complaints. Thyroid hormones; Regulates vital body functions such as breathing and adjusting the heart’s beating rate, controlling metabolic rate, managing muscle strength, adjusting the menstrual cycle, balancing body temperature and adjusting cholesterol levels.

What is Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism?
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is overworked, which is excessively active. Thyroid gland, hyperthyroidism also produces a lot of hormones. Hyperthyroidism affects about 1% of women. People with hyperthyroidism; they show symptoms such as rapid weight loss, hair loss and excessive sweating.

Hypothyroidism is the opposite of hyperthyroidism. Thyroid gland hypothyroidism also works less and does not produce thyroid hormones adequately. Hypothyroidism is more common. In women with hypothyroidism, weight gain, cold, low energy can be observed.

Pregnancy and Thyroid Gland
During pregnancy, some changes occur in both the function and size of the thyroid gland. These are often not considered a disease.
Human coronic gonadotropin (hCG), known as the pregnancy hormone secreted in pregnancy, and estrogen can also affect thyroid hormones.

Hyperthyroidism during Pregnancy
Especially during the first trimester period of pregnancy, the baby meets all the hormones it needs from her mother’s blood. Therefore, from the moment she is pregnant, the body functioning begins to change and the thyroid gland begins to produce more hormones.

As a result, some growth may be observed in the thyroid glands. In general, from the beginning of pregnancy to the end, thyroid hormones grow at 30%.

The growth of the thyroid gland during pregnancy causes the amount of hormones secreted to increase. For this reason, an increase in the levels of thyroid hormones called T3 and T4 is detected in pregnancy. The failure of the thyroid gland to adjust this condition causes it to produce too many tycosine hormones, which in folk language leads to a disease called “hyperthyroidism” called poisonous goiter.

This disorder, known as thyroid increase, can cause problems in many regions, from cardiovascular circulation to metabolism.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; palpitations, weight loss, excessive sweating, weakness in muscles, defecating and diarrhea very often.

If hyperthyroidism is not treated, excess hormones passed to the placenta suppress the baby’s thyroid gland, causing congenital hypothyroidism.

For this reason, hyperthyroidism that occurs during pregnancy should be treated. The most commonly used method in the treatment of hyperthyroidism is provided by medication. In this method, hormone level is balanced by giving drugs that prevent the function of the thyroid gland.

Hypothyroidism during Pregnancy
Baby 12. from the week of pregnancy, it produces its own thyroid hormone. The baby’s thyroid hormone needs are provided by T4, which passes through the mother’s placenta until this time. If there are not enough thyroid hormones in the mother’s body, some problems may occur.

According to the researches, it has been determined that neurological developmental retisis occurs in the babies of pregnant women who experience a significant lack of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism has unintended negative effects on both the mother and the baby. These effects include miscarriages, pregnancy poisoning, postpartum risk of bleeding, congenital hypothyroidism in the newborn baby.

For these reasons, hypothyroidism called thyroid gland deficiency due to the mother should be prevented. If hypothyroidism is detected in the pre-pregnancy period, thyroid hormone replacement therapy begins before pregnancy.

It is recommended that the TSH value is 2.5 Mu/L. In the first weeks of pregnancy, the need for thyroid hormones increases by 30-50%.

In women diagnosed with hypothyroidism during pregnancy, thyroid functions should be corrected with thyroid hormone as soon as possible. In addition, routine tests performed at regular intervals should not be neglected and according to the results of these tests, the dose used in drug treatment should be adjusted.