Rubella, popularly known as rubella, is a highly common virus infection.
There are symptoms similar to colds such as mild fever and swollen lymph nodes, coughand runny nose. Close contact with the person infected with the Rubella virus, inhaling the same air, is enough to grab the disease.
When passed during pregnancy, it can cause serious problems in the baby.
For this reason, it is very important that pregnant women have sufficient information about rubella and do not disrupt hospital checks.
What is Rubella?
Rubella is a feverish viral infection seen with rashes. Rubella, usually spent in childhood, lasts about 3 days and often remains much lighter than measles.
The most important symptoms are typical rash, mild fever, anorexia, cough, headache and joint pain that start and spread throughout the body and last for three days. Symptoms other than the rash are mild and can sometimes last up to 1-2 weeks. In fact, the disease sometimes remains so mild that it is not even clear whether the disease has been passed.
Rubella may be a little more severe in adults and joint pains may occur. It does not cause permanent damage to the person after the disease is passed. The person who suffers the infection becomes immune and will never get caught in the rubella again.
The incubation period of the disease is 14-23 days. In other words, symptoms occur 14-23 days after the person comes into contact with a sick beer.
The Rubella virus is found in the nose and throat of the sick person. The disease is transmitted by direct contact with nose and throat secretions or viruses spread to the air through coughing and sneezing of the sick person. A sick person has a transmission within a 4-day period following the rash with 1 week before the rash occurs.
Rubella is a disease that can be largely prevented today, and the only way to prevent it is to vaccinate. Permanent immunity develops after vaccination. A very large proportion of adults of reproductive age are immune to rubella either because they spend childhood or because they are vaccinated.
Whether rubella is immune to it can be easily understood by a serological examination in the blood. Rubella IgG positive indicates that that person is immune to measles.
Rubella Positive In Pregnancy
Rubella infection can cause serious damage or miscarriages in the baby when passed during pregnancy. More than 20,000 babies were born with anomaly as a result of the 1964-65 outbreak in the United States, resulting in miscarriages of more than 10,000 pregnancies.
After the introduction of the Rubella vaccine in 1969, major outbreaks could be prevented. However, small-scale outbreaks may occur in different parts of the world. Today, due to the fact that many women of reproductive age are immune to this disease, the incidence of congenital defects due to rubella has decreased extremely.
About a quarter of babies whose mothers undergo rubella in the first trimester of pregnancy are born with one or more congenital defects. This condition is called congenital or congenital rubella syndrome, also known as congenital. The most common birth defects include eye problems, hearing loss, heart anomalies, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy, which can result in vision loss and complete blindness.
A significant number of children with congenital rubella syndrome have difficulty walking and learning in their later lives. On the other hand, rubella passed during pregnancy often causes miscarriage and stillbirths.
The risk of congenital rubella syndrome in the baby is closely related to the period of pregnancy. The earlier the disease is passed, the greater the risk. The biggest risk is the rubellla in the first trimester. In such a case, the risk of the baby being affected or low varies between 25-80%.
When passed early in the second trimester, the risk of congenital rubella is reduced to around 1%. After the twentieth week, it rarely causes birth defects.
Some infants may have non-permanent health problems. These are the most common low birth weight. In addition, from time to time, tables such as nutritional problems, diarrhea, pneumonia, meningitis and anemia can be seen. Depending on temporary bleeding disorders, there may be purple-red spots in the cillte. Liver and spleen growth can be detected in the baby.
Can Rubella Be Prevented?
Rubella is a preventable disease. With simple assays and tests, it can be easily prevented. For this reason, all expectant mothers who do not know if they have rubella in childhood should learn their condition by taking a blood test before conception.
It is an appropriate approach to vaccinate people who do not have immunity, albeit very rarely, before conception.
In women who have rubella screening after conception and are found to have no immunity, vaccination cannot be made. In such a case, the person should stay away from people who have undergone rubella during their pregnancy.